This page provides detailed data visualisation of the trajectory for Europe (EU27), as suggested by the CLEVER project. To access pathways for another country (or EU perimeter), you may use the dropdown menu in the top right menu. You may also click here to download the raw data behind all graphs shown below.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Creative Commons License

Methodological notes: unless specified, calculations below have been made with international aviation and with international maritime transport.

Table of contents

  1. GHG
  2. Sankey diagram
  3. Renewable energy share
  4. Energy carrier balance
  5. Energy consumption
  6. EU indicators & objectives


Sankey diagram

Renewable energy share

Renewable shares per final energies are calculated by analysing all energy flows going through different transformation processes (electricity and heat production processes, power-to-gas etc.) as described by the Sankey diagram. An algorithm goes upstream through this complex energy system, from a given final energy to all relevant primary energies, and determines their respective shares. For example, a renewable share of 50% for final electricity means that 50% of the electricity consumed has been produced by renewable means, either directly from renewable power technologies such as wind of PV, or indirectly - for example if gas cogeneration has been used with a share of renewables in the gas mix.

Energy carrier balance

Local production coverage ratios are simply defined as the ratio between the local production of a given energy carrier, and its local consumption (including final and non final uses). A ratio above 100% thus means that the country is more than self-sufficient (net exporter), while a ratio below 100% means that the country is a net importer.

The above chart describes the contribution of misc. technologies (and possibly imports) to the production of a given secondary energy carrier.

The above chart illustrates final and internal (non final) uses of a given secondary energy carrier. Losses are either included in each internal use, or separated (in both case, the total is the same):

Energy consumption

EU indicators & objectives

In this section, indicators are calculated according to Eurostat methodology, and compared with official EU objectives (when available).

Caution: the perimeter for bunkers is different in this section than above graphs - international aviation is included, international maritime transport is excluded.

This indicator is equivalent to Eurostat's "Final energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030)", it is equal to the final energy consumption calculated previously, without ambient heat, non-energy consumption, international maritime consumption and the energy sector (except blast furnaces).

This indicator is equivalent to Eurostat's "Primary energy consumption (Europe 2020-2030)", it is equal to the primary energy consumption calculated previously, without ambient heat and non-energy consumption.

SEPIA v1.8 @ 22/06/2023 14h22